A rank-constrained coordinate ascent approach to hybrid precoding for the downlink of wideband massive MIMO systems

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An innovative approach to hybrid analog-digital precoding for the downlink of wideband massive MIMO systems is developed. The proposed solution, termed Rank-Constrained Coordinate Ascent (RCCA), starts seeking the full-digital pre coder that maximizes the achievable sum-rate over all the frequency subcarriers while constraining the rank of the overall transmit covariance matrix. The frequency-flat constraint on the analog part of the hybrid precoder and the non-convex nature of the rank constraint are circumvented by transforming the original problem into a more suitable one, where a convenient structure for the transmit covariance matrix is imposed. Such structure makes the resulting full-digital precoder particularly adequate for its posterior analog-digital factorization. An addi tional problem formulation to determine an appropriate power allocation policy according to the rank constraint is also pro vided. The numerical results show that the proposed method outperforms baseline solutions even for practical scenarios with high spatial diversity.